# Non-Contact Level Meters – Measuring Principle Level Radar

## Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW)

A radar signal is emitted via an antenna, reflected on the product surface and received after a time t. The radar principle used is FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave). The FMCW-radar transmits a high frequency signal whose frequency increases linearly during the measurement phase (called the frequency sweep).

The signal is emitted, reflected on the measuring surface and received with a time delay, t. Delay time, t=2d/c, where d is the distance to the product surface and c is the speed of light in the gas above the product. For further signal processing the difference Δf is calculated from the actual transmit frequency and the receive frequency.

The difference is directly proportional to the distance. A large frequency difference corresponds to a large distance and vice versa. The frequency difference Δf is transformed via a Fourier transformation (FFT) into a frequency spectrum and then the distance is calculated from the spectrum. The level results from the difference between tank height and measuring distance.